What explained the weakness in manufacturing in 2018-2019?

Article published in the Economic Review of June 2020

During 2018 and 2019, the manufacturing industry in the euro area saw a stronger slowdown than elsewhere owing to its greater dependence on exports, in an international environment marked by heightened trade tensions and uncertainty

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From 2019 onwards, the articles from the Economic Review are published in French and Dutch in the form of digests, their full version being available only in English.