Financial Market Infrastructures and Payment Services Report 2021

Full document (pdf)

Executive summary

  1. The Bank’s role in oversight and prudential supervision of financial market infrastructures, custodians, payment service providers and critical service providers
    1. Critical nodes in the functioning of financial markets and payment services
    2. FMIs, custodians, payment service providers and critical service providers subject to oversight and prudential supervision by the Bank
  2. Securities clearing, settlement and custody
    1. CCPs
    2. (I)CSDs
    3. Custodians
  3. Payments
    1. Payment systems
    2. Payment institutions and electronic money institutions
    3. Processors of payment transactions
    4. Card payment schemes
  4. SWIFT
    1. ​​​​Oversight approach
    2. Covered oversight topics in 2020
    3. Oversight priorities in 2021
  5. Specific thematic articles
    1. Activities of Big Tech companies, international payment card schemes and European initiatives
    2. Markets in Crypto‑Assets
    3. Analysing a digital euro – A status update
    4. Digital operational resilience
    5. Threat Intelligence‑Based Ethical Red teaming in Belgium (TIBER‑BE)
    6. FMI‑PSP Inspections


  1. Regulatory framework
  2. FMIs established in Belgium with an international dimension
  3. Statistics
  4. List of abbreviations