Demography is the study of the characteristics of populations and their dynamics, based on themes such as birth, fertility, mortality rates, marriage (or co-habitation) rates and migration.  It analyses changes in these phenomena over time and space, depending on socio-economic and cultural environments. 

Demographic movements can have a major impact on the labour market and therefore need to be included in the overall analysis presented here.

As regards the influence of recent migratory flows, a communication by Mrs Marcia De Wachter, Vice-President of the High Council for Employment, has been published on the economic consequences of the inflow of refugees into Belgium. A comprehensive article has been published in the Economic Review of the National Bank of Belgium.